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Physical Properties of Gemstones
認識寶石的特性
* 圖說:
				薔薇石英(六道星光)
* 圖說: 薔薇石英(六道星光)
Crystal system

The atomic structures of gemstones are similar to their mineral origin, in that their atomic components are arranged in specific patterns, or crystal structures . There are 6 main ..........

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Hardness

Hardness measures a gemstone's resistance to scratching, which is related to the ionic or atomic bonding strengths of the minerals and their chemical components. The most widely used measuring ..........

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Toughness

Toughness refers to how well a gemstone can withstand external mechanical stress, such as impacts from falling or hammering, without breaking, chipping and cracking. Toughness is not necessarily ..........

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Cleavage

Cleavage is the tendency of mineral crystals to fracture into defined crystallographic planes. The direction and the availability of cleavage planes are governed by the structures of crystals. The ..........

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Color

Like most other objects, minerals differ in their abilities to absorb, reflect and transmit light at various wavelengths, and therefore will produce different colors. Color is also an important ..........

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Luster

Luster describes the way light reflects off the surfaces of gemstones. Minerals with high refractive index and can reflect lights well are said to have “adamantine luster,” such as diamond, zircon ..........

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Transparency

Transparency measures the degree of light that passes through a gemstone. Transparency of a mineral is closely related to factors such as amount of impurities, inclusions or cleavages. For ..........

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Dispersion

Dispersion of a mineral refers to how light is broken down into its individual wavelength components – red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet and purple -, when it hits the surface of a ..........

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Refractive Index

Gemstones have a higher density than air, therefore when light enters the gemstone it will slow down and change direction, resulting in refraction. The ratio between the speed of light in the air ..........

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Pleochroism

When observing gemstones with birefringences, one may occasionally observe differences in shading or color changes. This is referred to as pleochroism (“many color), and is caused by absorption ..........

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Chatoyancy

Chatoyancy, or “cat's eye,” is an optical phenomenon caused by light reflecting off a gemstone with internal fibrous minerals or inclusions arranged in parallel direction. When these gemstones are ..........

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Asterism

Asterism is a type of optical phenomenon caused light reflecting off impurities inside of gemstones, such as fibrous materials arranged in specific directions, mineral, gas or liquid inclusions. ..........

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Color Change

Gemstones may change their colors depending on the angles of light entering into them. Also, gemstones may change colors when shined by lights at different wavelengths. Such property is referred ..........

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