This section is responsible for collecting vascular plant specimens. Currently, dried and liquid-preserved specimens make up the majority of the collection. However, pollen slides, seeds,wood samples and section slides are also of importance. Among the many kinds of plant specimens, angiosperms are the most abundant. Approximately 36,600 dried angiosperm specimens have been recorded to date, as well as approximately 500 gymnosperm specimens and 4600 pteridophyte specimens, totalling 41,700 dried specimens. Most of the collection consists of native species. However, 14,000 specimens are from mainland China, while a small number are from other areas of Asia, Australia/New Zealand, Europe, North America, etc. The main sources of specimens include collection by the museum's curators, donations from people outside the museum, purchases and exchanges.
This section has held several conferences, including the Workshop for the Information and Database Management of Vascular Plant Specimens, and the Workshop for the Botanic Inventory in Taiwan. In addition, this section assisted in coordinating the International Symposium on Rare, Threatened and Endangered Floras of Asia and the Pacific Rim, and is currently involved in organizing the Across-Strait Symposium on Floristic Diversity and Conservation.